Isolation of Mutant Bacteria

Important advances in genetics were made in the early 1950s through studies of bacteria. As prokaryotic organisms, bacteria have certain advantages over eukaryotic organisms because they are haploid and have an extremely short generation time. Mutant bacteria can be identified easily. The growth of some mutant bacteria depends on whether a certain substance is present […]

st john's wort health benefits

St. John’s Wort Health Benefits

Common names: St. John’s wort, St. John’s herb. Botanical name: Hypericum perforatum, family of clusiaceae. St. John’s wort is a flowering plant of the genus Hypericum and has been used as a medicinal herb for its antidepressant and anti-inflammatory properties for over 2,000 years. St. John’s Wort can be found in capsule, tincture, oil, or raw […]

Xeroderma Pigmentosum

Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is a heterogeneous group of genetically determined skin disorders due to unusual sensitivity to ultraviolet light. They are manifested by dryness and pigmentation of the exposed regions of skin (xeroderma pigmentosum=“dry, pigmented skin”). The exposed areas of skin also show a tendency to develop tumors. The causes are different genetic defects of […]

DNA repair

DNA Repair

Life would not be possible without the ability to repair damaged DNA. Since replication errors, including mismatch, and harmful exogenous factors are everyday problems for a living organism, a broad repertoire of repair genes has evolved in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. The following types of DNA repair can be distinguished by their basic mechanisms: (1) excision […]

Trinucleotide Repeat Expansion

The human genome contains tandem repeats of trinucleotides. Normally they occur in groups of 5–35 repeats. When their number exceeds a certain threshold and they occur in a gene or close to it, they cause diseases. Once the normal, variable length has expanded, the increased number of repeats tends to increase even further when passed […]


Aside from homologous recombination, the overall stability of the genome is interrupted by mobile sequences called transposable elements or transposons. There are different classes of distinct DNA sequences that are able to transport themselves to other locations within the genome. This process utilizes recombination but does not result in an exchange. Rather, a transposon moves […]

5 Surprising Uses Of Vapor Rub

We all know what is Vapor rub. Vicks VapoRub ointment is a mentholated topical cream. VapoRub is indicated for use on the chest and throat for cough suppression due to the common cold or on muscles and joints for minor aches and pains. Vicks VapoRub has also been used to treat mosquito bites. Users of VapoRub often apply it immediately before sleep. VapoRub […]