The Strange world of Bionanomachines

Very remarkably, many of nanomachines will always perform their functions automatically, after they are isolated and purified, provided the environment is not too hard. They must not be sequestered inside the cells in the pure state. Each of them constitutes a self-sufficient molecular machine. Natural digestive enzymes such as pepsin and lysozyme are so hard […]


Replication Cycle of Viruses

With all their different genomic structures, forms, and sizes, viruses basically have a relatively simple replication cycle. While only the genome of a bacteriophage enters a bacterium, the complete virus (genome and capsid) enters a eukaryotic cell. General sequence of the replication cycle of a virus in a cell The replication cycle of a virus […]



Viruses are important pathogens in plants and animals, including man. The complete infectious viral particle is called a virion. Its genome carries a limited amount of genetic information, and it can replicate only in host cells. From analysis of the structure and expression of viral genes, fundamental biological processes such as DNA replication, transcription regulation, […]


DNA Transfer between Cells

Transfer of DNA occurs not only by fusion of gametes in sexual reproduction but also between other cells of prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms (conjugation of bacteria, transduction between bacteriophages and bacteria, transformation by plasmids in bacteria, transfection in cultures of eukaryotic cells). Cells altered genetically by taking up DNA are said to be transformed. The […]


Nuclear Pores

Nuclear Pore definition The nuclear pores are large protein complexes of the nuclear envelope that regulate the transport of substances between the cytoplasm and the cell nucleus, such as proteins, RNA, hormones. On average, there are about 2000 nuclear pores in the nuclear envelope of a vertebrate cell, but can vary depending on the cell […]



The discovery of bacterial viruses (bacteriophages or phages) in 1941 opened a new era in the study of the genetics of prokaryotic organisms. Although they were disappointing in the original hope that they could be used to fight bacterial infections, phages served during the 1950s as vehicles for genetic analysis of bacteria. Unlike viruses that […]


Recombination in Bacteria

In 1946, J. Lederberg and E. L. Tatum first demonstrated that genetic information can be exchanged between different mutant bacterial strains. This corresponds to a type of sexuality and leads to genetic recombination. A. Genetic recombination in bacteria In their classic experiment, Lederberg and Tatum used two different auxotrophic bacterial strains. One (A) was auxotrophic […]


Why Zinc Supplements Are So Important

Zinc is one of the supplements considered to be an “essential supplement”. It is no great secret that zinc is an effective mineral for boosting the immune system but zinc has a lot of other benefits as well. Zinc is a powerful antioxidant that is believed to help prevent cancer. It can be found in […]


How to get your beach body

5 simple steps to help you get beach ready. 1.Lift weights – to lose fat and build muscle you need to generate as much physiological stress as possible.  During hard exercise the body creates lactic acid and expends a great deal of energy both of which lead to fat loss and muscle gain.  To put it simply, […]


Benefits of Omega 3

There are thousands and thousands of supplements on the market these days that all promote themselves as “fat loss supplements”. It is extremely hard to know whether it is actually going to do you some good or just a marketing ploy to make money. The most important supplement for fat loss is Omega 3. Omega […]