Zinc, Vitamin C Synergy and Immune Function

The world is facing an unprecedented health crisis due to the Covid-19 pandemic. The virus has been spreading steadily around the world since its first outbreak in December 2019 in Wuhan. It has resulted in more than 300 million cases of infection worldwide and over 5 million deaths. Due to its global spread and high… read more »


The notion of probiotics has recently developed and most pharmacists have not been trained in these new food supplements. From birth, our gastrointestinal tract is colonized by many microorganisms that constitute the digestive microbiota. This complex and diversified ecosystem, unique to each individual, contributes to the proper functioning of the intestine through the many activities… read more »

Drugs Identification in Urine, Bile and Gastric Contents using Thin Layer Chromatography in Multiple Screening Systems

A method of simultaneous identification of 25 molecules in human urine, bile and gastric contents using liquid-liquid extraction followed by thin layer chromatography (TLC) using multiple screening systems is described. The analytes were extracted at 25°C under isocratic conditions using chloroform after acidification with 1 to 2 drops of HCl 6 N for 10 mL… read more »

Impact of Particle Irradiation on the Immune System: From the Clinic to Mars

Despite the generalized use of photon-based radiation (i.e., gamma rays and X-rays) to treat different cancer types, particle radiotherapy (i.e., protons and carbon ions) is becoming a popular, and more effective tool to treat specific tumors due to the improved physical properties and biological effectiveness. Current scientific evidence indicates that conventional radiation therapy affects the… read more »

Measuring Apoptosis by Flow Cytometry

Mitochondria are double-membraned organelles believed to have been integrated into modern eukaryotes via symbiosis of proteobacteria into an anaerobic pre-eukaryotic (host) cell 1.5–2 billion years ago. According to modern thinking (pioneered by Mitchell;), an essential role of mitochondria is to produce ATP via oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). In this process, the chemical energy stored in nutrients… read more »

The Strange world of Bionanomachines

Very remarkably, many of nanomachines will always perform their functions automatically, after they are isolated and purified, provided the environment is not too hard. They must not be sequestered inside the cells in the pure state. Each of them constitutes a self-sufficient molecular machine. Natural digestive enzymes such as pepsin and lysozyme are so hard… read more »

Replication Cycle of Viruses

With all their different genomic structures, forms, and sizes, viruses basically have a relatively simple replication cycle. While only the genome of a bacteriophage enters a bacterium, the complete virus (genome and capsid) enters a eukaryotic cell. General sequence of the replication cycle of a virus in a cell The replication cycle of a virus… read more »


Viruses are important pathogens in plants and animals, including man. The complete infectious viral particle is called a virion. Its genome carries a limited amount of genetic information, and it can replicate only in host cells. From analysis of the structure and expression of viral genes, fundamental biological processes such as DNA replication, transcription regulation,… read more »

DNA Transfer between Cells

Transfer of DNA occurs not only by fusion of gametes in sexual reproduction but also between other cells of prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms (conjugation of bacteria, transduction between bacteriophages and bacteria, transformation by plasmids in bacteria, transfection in cultures of eukaryotic cells). Cells altered genetically by taking up DNA are said to be transformed. The… read more »


The discovery of bacterial viruses (bacteriophages or phages) in 1941 opened a new era in the study of the genetics of prokaryotic organisms. Although they were disappointing in the original hope that they could be used to fight bacterial infections, phages served during the 1950s as vehicles for genetic analysis of bacteria. Unlike viruses that… read more »