Stress is defined as a situation of excessive nervous tension, psychologically, a state of disruption caused by an attack.
Initially, stress was defined as a physiological response of the body to an exhausting, dangerous or distressing situation. The body then produces specific hormones. This notion was later extended to any state of disruption caused by a confrontation with danger, a physical or psychological threat, a difficult environment.
Here 5 tips to help you reduce your stress… in less than 5 minutes!
1. Analyse an image
Get a nice-looking image with several small details, which you can hang near your desk, for example. When you face a stressful situation, take 5 minutes to fix the image by spending several minutes contemplating the details it in an extremely precise way.
2. Guided relaxation (meditation)
Guided relaxation plays an important role to help you relax and relieve stress. For example, I recommend Gabrielle Bernstein guided meditation which offers a variety of small relaxation exercises of only 3 or 4 minutes.
Breathing really influences stress and reduces its symptoms. By simply taking a few moments for a deep breath, you will be able to calm down quickly. Make sure that you are in a quiet place, place one hand on your stomach and inhale deeply through your nose, slowly counting to four. Then exhale through your mouth, always counting to four. Feel the air entering your lungs, focus on the breath in your mouth.
Go out for 5 minutes to get some air. However, the exercise doesn’t stop there: you will have to walk quietly, paying attention to all the sensations that stimulate your senses, such as the heaviness of your steps, the wind on your face, the fabric of your gloves on your hands, the singing of birds or the small rocks on the sidewalk.
Visualization can be used in all situations. In this case, you will most likely be able to reduce your stress level by visualizing a place, real or imaginary, in which you feel totally comfortable. The important thing is not necessarily to see images in your head, but rather to try to feel the sensation of relief and well-being that this place gives you. Do this visualization regularly, for 5 minutes, even in quiet moments. This will help the effects to be done more quickly when you feel the need.
Above all, don’t despair: it is really possible to overcome stress, by taking the time, changing certain habits and using the right tools, and being patient.
How to reduce the stress of a completing project that you have to execute efficiently and productively.
According to the Canadian Mental Health Association, work demands can cause physical and emotional stress with short- and long-term repercussions on a person’s well-being. For example, long-distance driving, layoffs, accidents, tight deadlines, setbacks, punctual customers, absent teams, and budget cuts can make the workplace an increasingly stressful environment.
The ability to manage stress is a talent that is acquired through direct experience, in the immediate context of daily living, by learning about triggers and ways to deal with stressful situations, you can focus on the task at hand without feeling overwhelmed or compromising your health.
Here are some warning signs to watch for and some effective ways to combat stress at work.
Signs and symptoms of excessive work stress
Anxiety, irritability, depression
Apathy, loss of interest in work
Muscle tension, headaches
Loss of sexual desire
Alcohol or drug abuse
What strategies should be adopted to limit stress related to a work project?
Involve stakeholders before the project is launched, take their comments and opinions to understand their personal and professional constraints beforehand. Therefore, define a schedule/calendar accordingly in order to start your project management perfectly.
As we will keep reminding you over and over again, communication within a team is essential. Regular communication is essential. The project manager needs to know what his team is doing, and the teams need to understand what everyone is doing. Communicate at a good pace.
Roles defined for a manageable workload
Stress is often generated because of confusion about the roles and responsibilities that have not been clearly defined. Before the project is launched, clearly define the roles and responsibilities of each team member and limit everyone’s workload according to their abilities and skills. It is very important to remember that stress management is equal to the workload required.
Breaks between colleagues
Humour and jokes are a great way to dissipate tensions and build relationships between colleagues. A coffee break, off-site discussions lead to a pleasant atmosphere and create teams more motivated to achieve their objectives. As a result, these small intermittent breaks are not a waste of time, on the contrary, they improve the performance of the current project.
Individual meetings are also very important in project management. They allow each team member to express their concerns and needs regarding the project. An excellent way for the project manager to clear up misunderstandings, understand everyone’s expectations and increase the positive growth of the project. Feeling listened to will encourage your teams to be motivated in their tasks.
In project management, it is important that your teams do not feel overworked, less stress for more productivity. Today, well-being at work is very beneficial for everyone, so maintain it!
Dietary supplements and functional foods
Food supplements are foodstuffs intended to supplement the normal diet, the constitute a concentrated source of nutrients or other substances having, alone or in combination, a nutritional or physiological effect. They are marketed in many forms (capsules, pastilles, tablets, powder packets or ampoules).
The nutritional or health claims they claim have, since July 2007, been very strictly regulated under the European Regulation 1924/2006, which requires scientific proof to be provided to the European Medicines Agency (EMA).
Functional foods are not defined by legislation. They are considered common foods intended for consumption as part of a balanced and varied diet. Their particularity lies in the fact that they contain biologically active compounds that have beneficial effects on one or more target functions of the body, beyond the basic nutritional effects, in order to improve health and well-being and/or reduce the risk of disease.
Dairy products, especially yogurts, are the most abundant probiotic foods, with Danone’s Activia® and Actimel® products leading the way.
Like many foods, functional foods and probiotics are subject to safety and labeling rules, in particular with regard to claims used by the food industry as a selling point.
Recently, new guidelines have tightened the regulations around these probiotic foods because their health benefits were difficult to recognize.
European Union Regulation No 432-2012 of 16 May 2012 establishes a list of authorized health claims on foods and specifies that health claims must be based on generally accepted scientific evidence.
Probiotics fall into two types of claims: function claims and therapeutic claims:
Claim Any representation that states, suggests or implies that a food has particulate qualities related to its origin, nutritional properties, nature, processing, composition or any other quality.
Health claim refers to any representation in labeling and advertising that states, suggests or implies that there is a relationship between the consumption of a food or food constituent and a person’s health.
Functional claim refers to a health claim that describes the physiological effects of food or food constituents on the body’s normal functions or biological activities associated with health or performance. Functional claims can be made about the physiological effects of probiotic microorganisms in foods (e.g., “promotes regularity” and “improves nutrient absorption and aids digestion”). Function claims must include a specific, scientifically substantiated physiological effect associated with good health or performance and providing useful information to consumers.
Therapeutic claim refers to the treatment or mitigation of a disease or health disorder or related to the recovery, correction or modification of bodily functions. For example,”[name of food or food constituent] lowers blood cholesterol”.
The assessment of probiotics for food use is described in the report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Consultation (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and World Health Organization).
Specific labeling guidelines are outlined in the Canadian Food Inspection Agency’s (CFIA) Guide to Food Labelling and Advertising, which applies to all products containing probiotic microorganisms. According to the appropriate description of a probiotic product, as indicated on the label, should include the following points:
Strain Identification: Any claim for a probiotic must be accompanied by the Latin name of the microorganism (i.e. genus and species), as well as the name of the strain of the microorganism. For consistency, it is recommended that the strain should be identified by the number assigned by an internationally recognized culture bank, such as the American Type Culture Collection.
Quantity declaration: The quantity of the probiotic microorganism(s) present in the product must be indicated in colony-forming units (CFU) in a specified portion of the food. This statement must appear next to the Nutrition Facts table or ingredient list, or in close proximity to the claim.
List of ingredients: Any food containing probiotic microorganism(s) must display a list of ingredients in accordance with the sections of the Food Regulations. The probiotic microorganism must be designated by its common name or by the class name.
Probiotics for Histamine Intolerance
Histamine intolerance, sometimes referred to as histaminosis, is an over-accumulation of histamine in the body’s organs. Histamine intolerance is often referred to informally as an allergy, but due to a metabolic imbalance, this intolerance is technically caused by the progressive accumulation of extracellular histamine.
Around 1 percent of the world population is intolerant to histamine; of those, 80 percent are middle-aged.
Histamine is an organic nitrogenous substance involved in local immune responses, it controls as a neurotransmitter the physiological activity of the gut, and various functions in different organs such as the brain, the spinal cord, and the uterus. Histamine is also involved in the inflammatory response and, as a mediator of itching, it plays a central role.
Symptoms of Histamine intolerance
Histamine intolerance may look like any seasonal allergies-you can experience hives, itchy or irritated skin, red eyes, facial swelling, nasal congestion, headaches, or asthma attacks if you consume histamine-rich food or beverages. Other signs, including a decrease in blood pressure, heart palpitations, and anxiety or panic attacks, could appear and could be sometimes more severe.
Gastrointestinal problems are also particularly common: recent research surveyed about 60 patients on the subject and confirmed that the most common and extreme symptom was bloating, accompanied by diarrhea, abdominal pain, and constipation.
Such symptoms are believed to be common amongst all patients. The reason is that histamine receptors are present all over the body, . Campbell adds that, since the symptoms are quite unpredictable, patients are usually sent to multiple consultants.
Histamine intolerance is generally related to other diseases such as allergy or food intolerance, mastocytosis (a rare disorder in which mastic cells accumulate in the skin or organs), psychosomatic diseases (physical manifestations of stress and anxiety), anorexia nervosa, or adverse drug reactions because of this bounce-around, research from Comenius University in Bratislava says.
Probiotics for Histamine intolerance
Over 100 trillion bacteria housed in our organism are actually participating in every single metabolic process in some way, spanning from immune health to everyday mood and energy.
When trying to understand the importance of gut bacteria in some illnesses, disorders like histamine intolerance are no exception.
Bacteria are actively involved both in histamine synthesis and degradation.
Some types of bacteria inside the gut will turn an amino acid called histidine into histamine when we eat foods containing this semi-essential amino acid. This conversion raises the levels of internal histamine-even though the food itself is not considered rich in histamine.
There may be an accumulation of extra histamine in the certain patient’s body experiencing histamine intolerance; and an imbalance of the gut bacteria may be the cause of a persistent rise in internal histamine levels.
Many people immediately turn to probiotics for histamine intolerance in an attempt to rebuild and restore gut bacterial equilibrium. Numerous studies have shown that probiotics can boost colonies of gut bacteria and improve overall health. So, this is a perfect solution in general.
Probiotics for histamine intolerance (Some Strains to Look For)
Lactobacillus rhamnosus (especially GG)
Schink, M., Konturek, P.C., Tietz, E., Dieterich, W., Pinzer, T.C., Wirtz, S., Neurath, M.F. and Zopf, Y., 2018. Microbial patterns in patients with histamine intolerance. J Physiol Pharmacol, 69(4), pp.579-593.
Pelto, L., Isolauri, E., Lilius, E.M., Nuutila, J. and Salminen, S., 1998. Probiotic bacteria down-regulate the milk-induced inflammatory response in milk-hypersensitive subjects but have an immunostimulatory effect in healthy subjects. Clinical and experimental allergy: journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 28(12), pp.1474-1479.
Tee, A., Gut Health and Histamine Intolerance.
Strategic Management & Leadership Analysis in a Pharmaceutical Company
SAIDAL SARL Group is a pharmaceutical manufacturer in Algeria which has a history of more than 30 years. But after 2010 the company has faced financial crisis slowly which brought it to the level of bankruptcy. This was a gradual change and at a glance, it can be identified that if closely monitored the disaster would have been controlled. Now that it has happened, it needed to implement a strategical plan to set SAIDAL in a new direction to get its body back on track with a greater goal to achieve more.
Recent studies have shown that the main reasons for the disaster are: the inappropriate resource allocation or investments, lack of monitoring of finances, structural errors of the newly appointed top management in 2010, also strategic decisions, errors in the value chain, etc. These were obtained by the external and internal environment analysis.
The aim of this work is above all to formulate a new business strategy R&D-open-innovation-oriented and focused on biotechnology to face challenges affecting the company’s global performance. Through critical analysis, I’ll try to highlight the relationships that might exist between this strategy, stakeholder expectations and the organizational effectiveness, and thus elaborate based on other similar and successful business models a reasonable implementation plan for the real-world environment that would make such a transition possible.
What is SAIDAL Group?
SAIDAL Group is a pharmaceutical company in Algeria currently with a Capital of 2.5 Billion Dinars. 80 percent of SAIDAL Group’s capital is owned by the state and the remaining 20 percent were sold to institutional investors and individuals in 1999. The restructuring process in 1997 contributed to its development into a manufacturing company with three divisions (Pharmaceutical, Antibiotics, and Biotech).
Ensure strategic stability and profitability in safeguarding its financial flexibility, maintaining constant development of its goods ‘ quality, attaining its growth targets and improving its human capital.
Achieve the State’s defined goals as the primary owner/shareholder.
Why SAIDAL Group?
SAIDAL group is a company with a greater history in the pharmaceutical industry of Algeria as well in the international context. From its starting in the year 1985 up until around 2010 it performed well, but now the company is in a phase of declining where the strategic decline has commenced due to several reasons. Therefore, for the assignment this organization becomes an ideal candidate and in the next chapters’ evaluation of the current strategic position of the company will be analyzed along with the pros and cons that will give out good understanding where the company will be heading. Next, strategic suggestions and a fully pledged plan will be presented.
Current Strategic Position of the Company
SAIDAL Group was performing well in the initial stages prior to 2010 before the restructure was introduced. In the year 2017, the company revenue was only estimated at 84 USD Million and that was not enough to cover their investment made from the year 2010 150 USD million per annum. Therefore, by the year 2017 SAIDAL group is at a level of bankruptcy. At that moment the company had 2357 employees on board (SARL, 2017).
The concept of a firm in difficulty has only recently been introduced. Although this term has taken over from the traditional term “bankruptcy”, the two terms are not superimposable and do not in any way reflect the same legal approach. A firm goes through several stages before reaching the irremediable stage of bankruptcy.
A failure is first and foremost an economic event since it is the result of the company’s economic and financial difficulties. However, it is also a legal event, given the importance of the law in initiating recovery measures. Thus, it seems appropriate to devote a part of the present work to the legal framework of the Algerian company in difficulty.
SAIDAL group was performing well in the earlier stage but the turning point of this kind of bankruptcy occurred at the point of changes that were introduced in the year 2010 by the change of the top management.
SAIDL was it running smoothly?
The concept of a firm in difficulty presupposes that the firm has ceased to operate smoothly. A break in the continuity of its operations has occurred, will occur or is likely to occur. Similarly, SAIDAL was operating much smoothly prior to 2010 as the company was having three subsidiaries to operate separately in the pharma sector, antibiotic sector and biotic sector. During that time, their operation was much successful and the sales were growing rapidly with each year 1.23% increase in acquiring the international market especially in the South Asian region which was a much difficult entry for the other competitors. At the beginning of the year, 2017 firm was therefore not yet in a state of cessation of payments, characterized by the impossibility of meeting current liabilities out of available assets.
Jean Brilman adopts a fairly broad concept of a company in difficulty: “it is not only a company that is in financial difficulty (the immediate consequence of other, much deeper problems), it is also a company that, encountering or anticipating difficulties, takes immediate action to avoid financial problems: little or no profitability, difficult economic conditions, declining business volume, deterioration in the social climate, conflicts, etc.” (Brilman, 1978). Similar is what happened for SAIDAL at the initial stages there financial states were at a greater level as they had a lot of financial reserves stored from the earlier profit. Their liquidity ratios were at a greater level with a value of more than one (SARL, 2017).
Beyond that, the notion of a company in difficulty does not necessarily refer to the idea of financial difficulties but reflects a different approach to the operating incidents that companies may encounter. Indeed, it incorporates an essential idea: prevention. SAIDAL management understood the situation by the year 2015 and took action to fix the issue but the prevention was not done. Actually what lacked in risk management. Therefore we can conclude that SAIDAL SARL was running very well and had a greater throwback due to some reason, that is what needed to be analyzed using this report.
The failure process of SAIDAL Group
As per (James Kolari, 2002) failure process of a large organization happens first in terms of economic, commercial and then followed by financial decline. SAIDAL group is an ideal example for such a consecutive failure or bankruptcy in their domain and the saddest part it while all of this process is happening none of the top management noticed any of these or no action was taken to fix this. Following are the details of the step by step financial failure of SAIDAL group according to their report (SAIDAL SARL, 2017).
The company’s performance is based on three factors which are: production cost, quantities sold and prices. Each of these factors is subject to the constraints of environmental variations. Depending on the nature of its activity and its situation in its environment, the company’s performance is more or less sensitive to some events: increase in the prices of raw materials, wage increases, competition, technological innovation.
Table 1- The most important investments in the pharmaceutical sector in Algeria (Ghebbi, 2010)
Investment in USD
The new management program was appointed in the year 2010, established with the aim of expanding the business at SAIDAL. The directorial board took some kind of regressive investment decisions to work in line with the other competitors in the industry and come ahead of the competition.
Increasing investment to establish a new factory with USD 100 million
Increased Research and development investment up to 40 USD million from 20 USD million which was the earlier
While all of that investment was increased there was an increase in the mineral prices where the materials needed for pharmaceutical manufacture like Rutile, Zincite, Periclase, Hematite, etc were increased in price due to new tax revisions. Therefore the economic regression began for the SAIDAL.
Table 2 – SAIDAL R & D Expediture Chnage – 2001 -2008
Workforce by category
% of employees in R&D
Average monthly gross pay per employee, DA
% of trained employees in one year
% Training expenses
Training budget/Wage bill %
Average training expenditure per trained employee, DA
Number of accidents at work weighted by severity rate
It may be abrupt, gradual or latent and concealed. It is characterized by a fall in sales or a drop in the gross margin rate, or both successively or simultaneously. Due to the above-mentioned reasons, the cost of production increased at SAIDAL making the average margin per pharmaceutical, biotic, and antibiotic to decline up to 17%, 19%, 15% respectively. Earlier these values were 38%, 43%, 32%. That became a huge drop for the company and gradually up until 2017 these values have dropped gradually. As the sales volume increased a little there was a remarkable revenue but that was not enough to cover the cost of the sales and the investment.
If the company does not react, is not flexible and cannot find new markets, while reducing its structural costs, then a financial decline might begin. It is most often the consequence of an uncontrolled commercial decline. The insufficient margin no longer allows the company to cover its structural costs (Senturk, et al., 2006). Similarly, SAIDAL lost the margin making the path to loss of markets and the works part is that there their investments has gone wrong making company much more susceptible for the bankruptcy. By the year of 2017, their liquidity has gone down, having a very low quick ratio in terms of finance and the top line bottom both growths has declined.
According to Alfred Chandler, a strategy is an act of determining the fundamental long-term goals and objectives, putting in place the actions and allocating the necessary resources to achieve those goals (Chandler, 1990). Prior to developing a strategy, we should find out where an organization lies now and what are the factors that will affect the current status and successful strategic management in managing these factors effectively and efficiently to gain competitive advantage and bottom-line growth.
Strategic Management Process
The strategic management process consists of five main steps: 1) Initial analysis (understanding the strategic context) 2) Internal and external analysis (planning the strategic approach, analyzing environment, resources, identifying opportunities, threats, strengths, and weaknesses) 3) Formulation of the business strategy (developing a strategy) 4) Implementation 5) Evaluation of the results (Figure 1).
Strategic management is a continuous and systematic process during which the company’s leaders make decisions that will have consequences in the future, develop plans and programs to implement the decisions and achieve the set objectives, and finally, evaluate performance. It is also a unique opportunity to unite management, employees and various stakeholders as well as customers in a common reflection to understand where is the company and where it wants to go (Nag, et al., 2007).
Throughout the strategic management process, the company must focus on the needs (expressed and experienced) and expectations (expressed and unexpressed) of customers (current and future) and stakeholders (suppliers, human resources, management, partners, shareholders) in order to offer them satisfactory products and services meeting their needs and expectations (Riege, 2005).
Environmental Analysis of SAIDAL Group
The survival of the company is directly linked to its dependence on external actors. The importance of the company’s external environment can be understood here in terms of the extent to which it has developed a certain degree of dependency on its environment.
A company’s analysis of the environment has a twofold objective:
to evaluate the various elements that may affect its activity;
to identify environmental opportunities or threats;
to identify external factors over which the company has no control and which also influences its orientation.
We must therefore briefly analyze the external environmental factors (micro) that have or could have an influence on the company’s growth and profitability prospects as well as on its situation in the market. The analysis of the external environment will lead to identifying external market opportunities as well as external threats that could affect the company’s operations in the short, medium or long term.
PESTLE Analysis of SAIDAL Group
In business strategy, the PESTLE analysis (political, economic, sociological, technological, environmental and legal) is a model for identifying the influence (negative/positive) that macro-environmental factors can exert on a company (Holland, et al., 2004). However, the PESTEL or PESTLE analysis is not a reference, but a mnemonic tool that makes it possible to carry out an external analysis more simply and thus be able to produce a SWOT matrix.
SAIDAL and its competitors are generally companies that are not really known and established in a specific field that is difficult to grasp, partly because of the complexity of the products manufactured and sold and partly because of their equally difficult environment.
A company like SAIDAL is present in multiple countries and is also active in a market that is facing both globalization and health issues.
Thus, in addition to having to deal with the political environments of trade and tax laws, SAIDAL must also comply with the social protection requirements of the countries it serves.
The growth rate is gradually picking up again in most countries in the world, even if it remains insignificant (in Algeria, it is around 1.5% according to World Bank (WorldBank, 2019)). On the other hand, developing countries are an increasingly important target for any market, and even more so for pharmaceutical companies.
In Algeria, as in other countries, the consumption of medicines is an increasingly important part of health care expenditure and weighs heavily on health insurance, household, and state funds. This growth is the result of several factors and particularly of the socio-cultural transition that has characterized the Algerian society in recent years (Farida & Brahim, 2012).
Technology is the source of business power. In order to control the local pharmaceutical market, SAIDAL uses the latest technology, its control over the sources of supply of raw materials and intermediate products and over marketing networks, its management machine, its easy access to financial markets, etc. However, the industrial capacity of its subsidiaries operating outside the country is oriented towards products that consume imported pharmaceutical substances at prices that are often abusive.
This is one of the black spots: the company being in the ecological trend, the synthetic drug has a bad image, in addition to coming from production lines mixing non-renewable elements such as solvents, or organic waste.
Fortunately, the pharmaceutical market is closely monitored in many aspects. SAIDAL’s business is significantly affected by patents, drugs, and their respective marketing authorizations, either under medical prescription or over-the-counter. It is one of the most challenging environments in which to operate, without a doubt.
Also, the newly introduced tax system for the pharmaceutical raw materials has become much of a burden for the industry.
Porters Five Forces Analysis of SAIDAL Group
Porter’s Five forces is a model that defines and analyzes five strategic powers affecting any market and helping to identify the vulnerabilities and strengths of a business. The study of the Five Forces is also used to describe the function of a market when deciding on business strategy. When it comes to strategic position determination of an organization like SAIDAL this step is very crucial to get an understanding of the current pharmaceutical industry status in Algeria.
Bargaining power of the buyers
The bargaining power of the buyers is very high as the number of patients, doctors and hospitals is very high throughout Algeria and also in the international context. Other than that the switching cost from one brand to another is very low in this industry in the majority of the drug types. It can be concluded that the bargaining power in this industry is very high.
Bargaining power of the suppliers
The bargaining power of the suppliers is very low in this context and that happens as there is much more possibility for the import of raw material rather than sourcing locally. But the same thing caused the decline of SAIDAL due to tax changes.
Threat of substitutes
This is very low in this industry as most of the products are generic items and the only limited number of alternative treatments available such as implants, surgery, homeopathic therapies, etc.
Risk of new entrants
There is a long lead time involved in the research and development in this industry, thing SAIDAL SARL has successfully completed years ago, other than that need of distribution channels, marketing teams, patent portfolio databases along with higher investment make new entrants a nightmare to this industry.
Rivalry among established firms
There are more than 20 players registered in this industry of Algeria which is considered as large scale / commercial pharmaceutical producers. Therefore the price competition is so much along with the new product introduction which makes the company with the highest technological Research & Development teams win. Also one of the major rules in this industry is the ‘first to market’ rule that makes a company succeed as well as decline fast.
So it is evident that SAIDAL group has taken above strategic decisions by identifying how the market works but the problem is that they didn’t identify the other factors and the internal environment of the business.
SWOT Analysis of SAIDAL Group
Table 3- SWOT Analysis of SAIDAL Group
Market leader in the latest generation of antibiotics
Financial stability (lexpressiondz.com, 2017)
Decrease in R&D
Higher employee turnover ( lower retentions)
Increase in health issues
Rising population and living standards
The exponential growth of products on the biopharmaceutical market (vaccines, biotechnologies, etc.)
International possibilities in the Asian region
Complex and rigorous regulations related to drug registration
Increase in counterfeiting
The government revised the tax system
The strategic management key is to converts threats and weaknesses of the SAIDAL Group into opportunities in order to get out of the level of bankruptcy.
The following objectives were set in order to get out of the current financial situation by taking the strategic planning duration to be five years. Findings from the internal and external analysis have been used for the formulation,
Increase the profit margin of every product type to be more than 30% by adapting an operational optimization process by the year 2022
Reach the net profit of 400 USD million by the year 2022
Increase the efficiency of the R & D division by innovation-based techniques with the aim of giving out minimum new product per year
Increase the local market share to 40 % by the year 2022 (currently 16% market share)
International market acquisition in terms of 20% total sales acquisition by the end of the year 2022
A Research and Development strategy (Functional Strategy) to Face the Current challenges
SAIDAL group, as well as the others in the pharmaceutical industry traditionally intensively based on R&D, has gone through a series of institutional and technological “shocks”. However, the core leadership of the respective department has remained sufficiently small and stable over a long period of time.
Industrial dynamics in the pharmaceutical industry are intimately linked to three specific key factors:
The nature of drug discovery processes, otherwise the properties of the technological opportunity space and the research procedures by which firms explore this space.
The fragmented nature of the relevant markets where research activities are relatively limited. Specifically, innovation processes are characterized by a long period of time during which the cumulative dimension is quite small and by “quasi-random” research procedures (random screening). Thus, innovation in one market (or therapeutic class) does not induce a greater probability of success in another market.
The type of competition and the role of patents. The pharmaceutical field is representative of those sectors where patent applications or models reasonably affect the competitive process.
Therefore, the major task for achieving the strategical success of the SAIDAL group depends on the hands of the research and development team and therefore this strategic plan mainly focuses on creating R&D stronger to gain the above mentioned SMART strategic objectives.
Biotechnology, a strategic field to exploit
The future of the pharmaceutical industry is thus taking on a new face, that of the “multi-buster” model, manufacturing specialty products, more oriented towards personalized medicine focused on small populations. The first discoveries on the human genome have given new directions to pharmaceutical R&D. As a result, nearly half of the new treatments launched on the market since 2003 are derived from biotechnology (Bertrand, 2000).
This chart from a report of Evaluate Pharma, one of the top 10 pharmaceutical producers in the United States shows that the top 10 drugs by sales are all biotech products, in red sales in 2018, and the shadow in grey represents the sales in 2017.
Therefore the SAIDAL group has a greater opportunity to enter into biotech products which will be the greater solution for their financial crisis as when biotechnology is involved, the cost of production as well the demand rises up.
The strategic choice of open innovation in biotechnology
Biotechnology has created an unprecedented innovation crisis in the pharmaceutical industry. The skills required are more advanced and diversified, and competition is upstream. Due to employee turnover, many of the skilled employees has left the R&D division making a challenge for them to engage in innovation bases biotechnological pharmaceutical formation.
To stay in the race, the best option is to turn towards open innovation, through various practices: alliances with start-ups, research partnerships with peers and many more.
Competition is becoming more and more established upstream of the innovation process, making the need for an innovation cycle to be narrow or shorter so that it will keep SAIDAL in the loop. The competition takes place in the acquisition of scientific and technical knowledge, which is often present outside the company’s borders. Thus, even the most competent R&D organization needs to connect to external sources of knowledge in order to innovate. This is the theoretical concept of open innovation.
There are 26 universities within Algeria itself and among that there are 14 universities that have biotechnology facilities which make eventually the best hub for open innovation.
Redesigning the Value Chain
The traditional value chain of the SAIDAL Group is just straight forward and only involves very small parties and that makes loopholes which eventually lead to loss of revenue as well the inconsistencies in raw material acquisition.
Even though there are around 2300 employees in SAIDAL their distribution is therefore restricted mostly for procurement, production, and marketing which are the primary value chain components. But it needs to be incorporated also with other supporting activities. The modified value chain can be generated as follows:
This will include a direct involvement of human resource division for the handling of the talent acquisition and monitoring of the R&D and other major divisions and also the involvement of the Finance and control division to handle all of the financials Realtime allowing the use of resources effectively and efficiently.
The implementation plan
The creation of an implementation plan is structured along several axes that define the growth of the company. It is defined by the act of determining the fundamental long-term goals and objectives, implementing actions and allocating the resources needed to achieve those goals.
Gantt Chart of Implementation
Table 4 – SAIDAL Strategic Change Implementation Plan – Gantt
4.1 Resources allocation
Human resources: The pooling of the brainpower of researchers from the ‘Inflammation and Immunology’ Division, they will be assigned to work in cooperation with the chosen startup on the biosimilar drug with collaborative research with selected 5 universities in Algeria
Physical and technological resources: The pooling of devices and all materials to conduct research and development in a cooperative context along with the reach of international partnership with SAIDAL and the other giants in the western countries like USA and Germany.
To establish the estimated cost of the project, a list the direct and indirect costs should be established:
Salaries of internally mobilized human resources, according to the hours planned for them to work on the project;
The cost of external human resources;
The cost of purchasing and/or renting equipment, supplies, and materials (rooms, computers, software, building materials, tools…);
Any travel expenses.
Overheads (or operating costs): these are all costs of the project other than labor and material costs, i.e. accommodation, heating, communication, external services, etc.;
Management costs such as salaries for the company’s transversal services (administration, marketing, finance, accounting, etc.).
Conflicts and Issues in Implementation
This process becomes a radical change that needs to be implemented quickly in order to take back SAIDAL to the prosperous age that it had earlier giving up bankruptcy. Therefore, some kind of theory like Kurt Lewin’s Change Management needs to be adapted.
Kurt Lewin’s Change Management Model use in SAIDAL
Kurt Lewin’s change model has three steps that include unfreezing, change and refreeze.
In the environment of SAIDAL this can be implemented in order to get the desired change, First, need to be done the unfreezing by first making the employees aware of what the situation that SAIDAL is currently in and why this change is needed. Then with the involvement of the top management itself, change can be introduced to the employees and they will embrace it willingly. Once the change is established it can be made to refreeze by providing some kind of incentives, bonuses, etc to them.
Projected Profit & Loss Account
Table 5- Projected Profit & Loss Account for SAIDAL Group 2020 – 2023
Cost of Sales
Marketing & Promotion
It can be concluded that SAIDAL group was a very well-established group that had fallen finically up to bankruptcy due to lack of monitoring of their process and also due to value chain changes and the investments that are done without considering other factors. These reasons were justified with the internal and external analysis conducted and can be concluded that the organization needs a strategic change. This change can be successfully implemented by doing a change to the structure of the company by paying more attention to the research and development department but with much monitoring of resource and fund allocation. The next strategic change is to implement structural change, involving human resource management to monitor and control talent acquisition and finance division to real-time control finance allocation. After implantation of these strategic changes successfully, it can be guaranteed that SAIDAL can reach the given strategic objectives in no time.
Barney, J. B. & Hansen, M. H., 1994. Trustworthiness as a source of competitive advantage. Strategic management journal , 15(S1), pp. 175-190.
Berman, et al., 1999. Does stakeholder orientation matter? The relationship between stakeholder management models and firm financial performance. Academy of Management journal, 42(5), pp. 488-506.
Bertrand, J., 2000. Génome humain: l’épopée du séquençage. Biofutur, 200(2000), pp. 25-31.
Bogdan, R., 2013. Possibility of Implementing a Modern System of Reporting Performance Indicators at the Level of Tourism Units. Revista tinerilor economişti, Issue 21, pp. 56-64.
Bonhomme, Y., Corbel, P. & Sebai, J., 2005. Différences entre «big pharmas» et «biotechs».. Revue française de gestion 2, Issue 2, pp. 117-133.
Boukhari, M., 2012. Performance et restructuration: Le cas SAIDAL. es cahiers du cread, Issue 101.
Brilman, J., 1978. Le redressement d’entreprises en difficulté. Hommes et Techniques.
Brulhart, F. & Gherra, S., 2013. Management des parties prenantes, pro-activité environnementale et rentabilité : le cas du secteur des produits de grande consommation en France. [Online]
Available at: https://journals.openedition.org/fcs/1336
[Accessed 08 February 2020].
Chandler, A. D., 1990. Strategy and structure: Chapters in the history of the industrial enterprise. Vol. 120 ed. s.l.:MIT press.
Chesbrough, H., 2006. Open innovation: a new paradigm for understanding industrial innovation. Open innovation: Researching a new paradigm, Issue 400, pp. 0-19.
Cohen, W. M. & Levinthal, D. A., 1989. Innovation and learning: the two faces of R & D. The economic journal 99, Issue 397, pp. 569-596.
Das, T. K. & Teng, B.-S., 1998. Between trust and control: Developing confidence in partner cooperation in alliances. Academy of management review, 23(3), pp. 491-512.
Desreumaux, A., 1996. Nouvelles formes d’organisation et évolution de l’entreprise. Revue française de gestion, Issue 107, pp. 86-108.
Fabre, P., 2016. L’open innovation, un levier majeur pour nos chercheurs, une chance supplémentaire pour les patients. [Online]
Available at: https://www.pierre-fabre.com/en/node/2119
[Accessed 12 February 2020].
Fairfield, K. D., 2016. Understanding functional and divisional organizational structure: A classroom exercise. Management Teaching Review, 4(1), pp. 242-251.
Farida, Z. & Brahim, B., 2012. La Consommation De Médicaments En Algérie Entre Croissance, Financement Et Maîtrise. Algerian Scientific Journal Platform, 12(2), pp. 191-209.
GaBi Online, 2019. Generics and Biosimilars Initiative. Biosimilars of bevacizumab. [Online]
Available at: www.gabionline.net
[Accessed February 2020].
Gherra, S., 2010. Stratégies de développement durable. Combiner les parties prenantes et les ressources et compétences de l’entreprise. Revue française de gestion, 204(5), pp. 141-153.
Gond, Jean-Pascal, Mercier, S. & (Toulouse), L. i. d. r. s. l. r. h. e. l., 2005. Les théories des parties prenantes: une synthèse critique de la littérature. Toulouse: LIRHE.
Holger, E., Hoyer, W. D. & Rübsaamen, C., 2010. Sales, marketing, and research-and-development cooperation across new product development stages: implications for success. Journal of Marketing, 74(5), pp. 80-92.
Holland, Sarah & Bátiz-Lazo, B., 2004. The global pharmaceutical industry. General Economics and Teaching, Issue 405002, pp. 1-24.
Hunter, J., 2002. Improving organizational performance through the use of effective elements of organizational structure. Leadership in Health Services.
James Kolari, D. G. H. S., 2002. Predicting large US commercial bank failures. Journal of Economics and Business, 54(4), pp. 361-387.
John, C., 1972. Organizational structure, environment and performance: The role of strategic choice. sociology, 6(1), pp. 1-22.
Kilpatrick, S., 1997. Education and training: Impacts on profitability in agriculture. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Vocational Education Research, 5(2), p. 11.
Larson, E. W. & Gobeli, D. H., 1987. Matrix management: Contradictions and insights. California management review, 4(29), pp. 126-138.
Le Figaro, 2010. GSK et Pfizer s’allient dans les traitements contre le sida. [Online]
Available at: https://www.lefigaro.fr/societes/2010/03/13/04015-20100313ARTFIG00125-gsk-et-pfizer-s-allient-dans-les-traitements-contre-le-sida-.php
[Accessed 10 February 2020].
lexpressiondz.com, 2017. “Le groupe Saidal est leader sur le marché national”. [Online]
Available at: http://www.lexpressiondz.com/nationale/le-groupe-saidal-est-leader-sur-le-marche-national-259990
[Accessed 14 February 2020].
Maniruzzaman, M., Nokhodchi, A. & Williams, R. O., 2018. Process engineering and pharmaceutical manufacturing technologies. pp. 1593-1594.
mdipi.gov.dz, 2010. Rapport sectoriel de l’industrie pharmaceutique. [Online]
Available at: http://www.mdipi.gov.dz/IMG/pdf/Rapport_sectoriel_-Industrie_Pharmaceutique-_PDF.pdf
[Accessed 15 01 2020].
Nadler & David, A., 1995. Discontinuous change: Leading organizational transformation. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, Inc. Publishers.
Nag, R., Hambrick, D. C. & Che, M., 2007. What is strategic management, really? Inductive derivation of a consensus definition of the field. Strategic management journal, 28(9), pp. 935-955.
Ouchalal, H., Khelfaoui, H. & Ferfera, Y., 2005. situation de la R&D dans l’industrie Algérienne.
Pfizer, 2016. Modèle R&D. [Online]
Available at: https://www.pfizer.fr/r-d/partenariats-de-recherche/notre-modele-de-rd
[Accessed 15 February 2020].
Pfizer, 2016. Une structure organisationnelle innovante. [Online]
Available at: https://www.pfizer.fr/a-propos-de-pfizer/pfizer-dans-le-monde/structure-organisationnelle
[Accessed 15 February 2020].
Pfizer, 2020. Organisation. [Online]
Available at: https://www.pfizer.fr/a-propos-de-pfizer/pfizer-en-france/organisation
[Accessed 15 February 2020].
Riege, A., 2005. Three‐dozen knowledge‐sharing barriers managers must consider. Journal of knowledge management.
SAIDAL, 2014. ORGANISATION. [Online]
Available at: https://www.saidalgroup.dz/fr/notre-groupe/organisation
[Accessed 14 February 2020].
Senturk, et al., 2006. Detect financial problems with six sigma. Quality progress, 39(4), p. 41.
TRONEL, B., 2009. Comment sauver une entreprise en difficulté financière?. [Online]
Available at: http://www.essensysgroup.com/essensys/web.nsf/0/3D83BD457014F464C12575D0004C8FB6?Open&FFR
[Accessed 06 February 2020].
Van Der Aalst, W., Hee, K. M. V. & Hee, K. v., 2004. Workflow management: models, methods, and systems. MIT press.
WorldBank, 2019. Algeria’s Economic Update – April 2019. [Online]
Available at: https://www.worldbank.org/en/country/algeria/publication/economic-update-april-2019
[Accessed 14 February 2020].
Hydroxychloroquine: Mechanism of Action
Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), is an aminoquinoline used for the prevention and treatment of uncomplicated malaria (caused by P. falciparum, P. malariae, P. ovale, or P. vivax) in areas where malaria is vulnerable to chloroquine. Other applications may include the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, and porphyria cutanea tarda. It is taken by mouth. HCQ is being investigated for the prevention and diagnosis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‐19) High-quality epidemiological care (Stein, et al., 2000).
The FDA approval for emergency use of hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine in COVID-19 treatment was revoked on 15 June 2020 (FDA.gov, 2020).
Hydroxychloroquine obtained approval from the FDA on 18 April 1955 (FDA.gov, 1955).
A recent research recorded a COVID-19.10 fatality in the hydroxychloroquine treated population (Chary, et al., 2020).
Hydroxychloroquine affects both lysosomes function and plasmodia in humans. Changing the pH of the lysosomes decreases the low-affinity self-antigen presentation in autoimmune diseases and interferes with plasmodia’s ability to proteolyze hemoglobin for its energy needs. Hydroxychloroquine has a long duration of action, as for some indications it might be taken weekly. Hydroxychloroquine can lead to serious hypoglycemia and thus it is recommended that diabetic patients control their blood glucose levels. Hydroxychloroquine in areas where chloroquine resistance has been identified, is not effective against malaria (Wolpin, et al., 2014).
Hydroxychloroquine is bioavailable in 67-74 percent. Bioavailability of the enantiomers R and S did not vary significantly. Following an oral dose of 200 mg, hydroxychloroquine reached a Cmax of 129.6ng / mL with a blood Tmax of 3.26h and a plasma Tmax of 50.3ng / mL with a plasma Tmax of 3.74h. Following intravenous doses of 155 mg and 310 mg, blood Cmax ranged from 1161-2436ng / mL with an average of 1918ng / mL.
Volume of distribution
55,22 L (blood) and 44,257 L (plasma)
In general, hydroxychloroquine is protein-bound in plasma by 50 percent. The hydroxychloroquine S enantiomer is 64 percent plasma bound protein. It is bound to serum albumin by 50 percent and alpha-1-acid glycoprotein by 29 percent. The R enantiomer is plasma-bound protein by 37 percent. It is linked to serum albumin by 29 percent and alpha-1-acid glycoprotein by 41 percent.
Hydroxychloroquine is N-dealkylated by CYP3A4 to the active metabolite called desethylhydroxychloroquine and to the inactive metabolites desethylchloroquine and bidesethylchloroquine. The main metabolite is desethylhydroxychloroquine.
Route of elimination
40-50 percent of hydroxychloroquine is excreted by the kidney, while only 16-21 percent of the dose is excreted in the urine as an unchanged drug. 5 percent of the dose is sloughed off in the skin and 24-25 percent is eliminated in the feces.
Oral hydroxychloroquine has a half-life of 3-4 hours of absorption. A 200 mg oral hydroxychloroquine dose has a half-life of 22.4 days in blood, and 123.5 days in the plasma. A 155 mg dose intravenous (iv) has a half-life of 40 days.
Mechanism of Action
The precise mechanism of action of HCQ is unknown. Hydroxychloroquine has been shown to accumulate in malaria parasite lysosomes, elevating the pH of the vacuole. This behavior interferes with the ability of the parasite to proteolyze hemoglobin, preventing its normal growth and replication. Hydroxychloroquine may also interfere with the action of parasitic heme polymerase, causing the toxic substance beta-hematin to accumulate.
Hydroxychloroquine concentration in human organelles often raises their pH, which inhibits the processing of antigens, prevents dimerization of the alpha and beta chains of the major histocompatibility complex ( MHC) class II, inhibits the cell’s antigen presentation and decreases the inflammatory response. High pH in the vesicles may alter the recycling of MHC complexes to present only the high-affinity complexes on the surface of the cells. Self-peptides bind to low-affinity MHC complexes and therefore are less likely to be exposed to autoimmune T cells. Hydroxychloroquine also lowers cytokine releases, such as interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor, probably by Toll-like receptor inhibition.
The elevated pH in endosomes prohibits the use of virus particles (such as SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2) for fusion and cell entry.
Hydroxychloroquine also blocks the terminal glycosylation of ACE2, the receptor that targets SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 for cell entry. ACE2 which is not in the glycosylated state may interact less efficiently with the spike protein SARS-CoV-2, further inhibiting viral entry.
Chary, M. et al., 2020. COVID-19: Therapeutics and Their Toxicities. J Med Toxicol.
FDA.gov, 2020. Coronavirus (COVID-19) Update: Daily Roundup June 15, 2020. [Online]
Available at: https://www.fda.gov/news-events/press-announcements/coronavirus-covid-19-update-daily-roundup-june-15-2020
Stein, M., Bell, M. J. & Ang, L.-C., 2000. Hydroxychloroquine neuromyotoxicity. The Journal of rheumatology, 27(12), p. 2927.
Wolpin, B. M. et al., 2014. Phase II and pharmacodynamic study of autophagy inhibition using hydroxychloroquine in patients with metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma.. The oncologist, 19(6), p. 637.
Top 4 Physical Exercises That Burn the Most Calories
There are several physical exercises that help burn calories quickly, the amount of calories you will burn depend on the duration of the exercise, pace, intensity, and your BMI.
According to Healthline, running is the most effective way to burn 652 – 965 calories per hour if your weight ranges between 125 – 185 lbs.
#2 High-knee running
Calories burned in 30 minutes: 240 to 355.5
#3 Butt kicks
Calories burned in 30 minutes: 240 to 355.5
#4 Mountain climbers
Calories burned in 30 minutes: 240 to 355.5
The Effectiveness of “Slimming Probiotics”
For several months, the link between the intestinal microbiota and body weight has been the subject of numerous studies and scientific papers. It is now recognized that an imbalance in the intestinal bacterial flora promotes weight gain. Conversely, rebalancing the intestinal microbiota using probiotics appears to be a promising and natural way to accelerate weight loss. As such, a research team from the Institute of Nutrition in Rio de Janeiro has just demonstrated the effectiveness of several slimming probiotics, including the Lactobacillus gasseri strain.
According to the definition of the World Health Organization (WHO), probiotics are “living microorganisms that, when ingested in sufficient quantities, exert beneficial effects on health”. Research on this subject has identified thousands of different probiotics, of which the best known bacterial strains belong to the genera Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus.
Lactobacillus gasseri Probiotic and Weight loss
The weight-loss potential of the probiotic strain Lactobacillus gasseri has been confirmed by a systematic review of the scientific literature (Million et al., 2012) To confirm the effectiveness of this slimming probiotic, more than 1,500 publications were selected and reviewed. At the end of the analysis, fourteen randomized double-blind studies were selected to limit the risk of biased results. Among them are studies conducted on animal models and clinical trials in humans. Regardless of the method used, these studies concluded that weight loss was observed in may individuals who have received Lactobacillus gasseri supplements, in particular, a decrease in body mass index (BMI). These positive results have led to the development of supplements based on Lactobacillus gasseri. A European pioneer in nutritional supplementation, Super Smart has been marketing this slimming probiotic for many years in the form of DR capsules Caps™. Gastro-resistant, these capsules protect the probiotics from the acids contained in the stomach and ensure their release in the intestines.
The effectiveness of the slimming probiotic Lactobacillus gasseri is currently arousing great interest in the scientific community. And with good reason, since this bacterial strain appears to be a natural solution, safe and without side effects, to lose weight, regain a healthy weight and fight overweight. The preventive use of the probiotic strain Lactobacillus gasseri is supported by several positive scientific results. Published in the Journal of Nutritional Science, a study has confirmed and deepened the benefits of this bacterial strain within the body. In addition to its slimming effects, it helps strengthen the intestinal barrier and counteracts inflammation of adipose tissue, an inflammatory reaction involved in the occurrence of certain metabolic disorders.
Million, M., Angelakis, E., Paul, M., Armougom, F., Leibovici, L. and Raoult, D., 2012. Comparative meta-analysis of the effect of Lactobacillus species on weight gain in humans and animals. Microbial pathogenesis, 53(2), pp.100-108.
Yun, S.I., Park, H.O. and Kang, J.H., 2009. Effect of Lactobacillus gasseri BNR17 on blood glucose levels and body weight in a mouse model of type 2 diabetes. Journal of applied microbiology, 107(5), pp.1681-1686.