Jon Brower Minnoch The fattest 6,35 tons-man in Human History

Jon Brower Minnoch (born September 29, 1941 in Bainbridge Island, died September 10, 1983) is an American who holds the record of the man who has lost the most weight in the world. He is also the record holder of the fattest man in human history. He lost 419 kilograms from his highest weight (estimated at 635 kg) 3 to his lowest weight (215 kg).

Jon Brower Minnoch
Jon Brower Minnoch

At the age of 12 he was already weighing 132 kilograms. And at the age of 22 (September 1976), he measured 1.85 meters for 178 kilograms.

Suffering from respiratory and cardiac disorders, Minnoch was admitted to the Seattle University Hospital (Washington). According to the calculations of Dr. Robert Schwartz, an endocrinologist, he weighed more than 635 kg, a weight largely due to water retention. After following a diet limited to 1,200 calories a day for almost 2 years, Minnoch went down to 216 kg. By October 1981 he had regained more 90 kg and was again hospitalized.

The transport of the most obese man of all time was extremely difficult. He needed a dozen firefighters and emergency personnel, a specially modified stretcher for him, and a ferry to take him to the Seattle hospital. There, he was placed on 2 beds joinded together, and 13 people were chrged to change the linen (because he had to roll it on the bed).

The heaviest man in history left the hospital after 16 months of restrictive diet of 1,200 calories a day. He weighed 216 kilograms (he lost between 5 and 7 kilograms of superfluous extracellular fluid per week). He had lost 419 kilograms and became the world’s thinnest man at the same time (record validated by the Guinness Book of Records).

With his condition of edema still incurable and difficult to treat continuously, he died 23 months later, on September 10, 1983 at the age of 42 (he weighed 362 kilograms and had a body mass index of 105, 3). This is the most significant difference in weight within a married couple.

John had two children behind him, fruits of his union with his wife Jeannette, who weighed 50 kilograms.

NuWhite Glutathione, Intense Skin Whitening

NuWhite Advanced Whitening contains L-Glutathione, Collagen and Placenta. All NuWhite components are approved by U.S FDA.

NuWhite is a Japan formulated supplement that has undergone thorough research and clinical studies. Its ingredients are carefully processed and formulated through Japan’s Technology to preserve purity and stability of its potency ensuring product’s effectivity.

100% HandMade Whitening Glutathione Soap with Honey Kojic Smell at 9,99€ ONLY – STOCK LIMITED!


It is available in a sealed pink recipient that contains 1600 mg of l-glutathione, collagen, placenta, Vitamin C and CoQ10.


6 Powerful Extracts working together to give INTENSE SKIN WHITENING:
  1. Glutathione 700mg
  2. Placenta 300mg
  3. Collagen 250mg
  4. Vitamin C 200mg
  5. CoQ10 100mg
  6. Pomegranate Ellagic Acid 50mg
  • S-Glutathione 700 mg  – for pores and skin whitening, it is also a strong anti-oxidant.

S-Glutathione is a Powerful antioxidant that helps fight free radicals. It whitens skin by controlling skin pigmentation.
–Keeps skin healthy and glowing.

  • Collagen 250 mg – Collagen fights and reverses skin-aging process, reduces wrinkles, fine lines and other unsightly sign of skin aging. It also maintains healthy and glowing skin.
  • Placenta 350 mg– Clinically proven effective in skin whitening and skin nourishing an ingredient with cell renewing. Rich source of natural and potent amino acids that are essential for the production of beautiful and healthy skin.  Maintains skin healthy and glowing.
  • Vitamin H 200 mg– Aids in pores and skin whitening, boosts immune system, and in addition builds collagen.
  • CoQ10 100mg – Powerful antioxidant that can withstand and reverse skin damage. Preserve collagen and elastin within cells to make skin younger.
  • Pomegrenate Ellagic Acid 50mg  – Protects skin against photoaging, supports skin cell regeneration, promotes healing and prevents cancerous changes due to UV exposure. Clinically proven to reduce fine lines and wrinkles. Effectively lighten and brighten skin.
  • Ascorbic Acid: Aids in skin whitening. Protects skin from free radicals that causes skin damage. Boost immune system. With anti-aging properties.

NuWhite Glutathione Review

  • It’s a concentrated of whitening supplement. Nuwhite is a softgel capsule easy to swallow, readily dissolve in the gastric juice, enhances bioavailability of the active ingredients thus ensuring effective absorption of the skin enhancing ingredients.
  • Combination of the 6 powerful extracts will avoid you taking lots of beauty supplements. Nuwhite provides skin whitening, anti-aging, skin renewal and moisturizing. Gives you beautiful skin in just one step.

After taking NuWhite Glutathione for a month, according to customers reviews, a clear improvement in the skin color, which becomes clearly lighter, brighter and softer.

  • NuWhite Glutathione contains L- Glutathione, Collagen, Placenta Extract, CoQ10, Pomegranate Ellagic Acid known as anti-aging supplements. So once you pop a pill, you’re not only whitening your skin but also adding a boost in anti-aging department.
  • No discomforts like vomiting, headache, nausea, breakouts, or whatsoever while taking this supplement
  • Made the skin glowing.
  • The packaging- it is color pink! It is tightly sealed and contains a leaflet that has information about the product.
  • The scent- unscented.
  • It’s in a softgel capsule that made it faster in absorption.
  • This supplement gave me a good night sleep.
  • I’m already fair to begin with but it made my skin pinkish/rosy white in tone.
  • t lessened cystic pimples popping around my chin which I experience every month.
  • It also maintained my skin color despite the hot humid weather. I’m always outside doing errands in the afternoon.
  • I also noticed that my my wounds heal faster. I have thin skin and I easily get a scratch from sharp objects,
  • Batch, manufacturing and expiry date printed on the package.
  • Not easily accessible, you have to purchase it online.
  • Because of the softgel’s size, some may find it hard to swallow.
  • The price can be steep to budget conscious individuals.



At-Home Anemia Test (60 seconds)

Anemia is usually defined as a decrease in the total amount of red blood cells (RBCs) or hemoglobin in the blood.

It can also be defined as a lowered ability of the blood to carry oxygen. Iron-deficiency anemia, also spelled iron-deficiency anaemia, is anemia caused by a lack of iron.

Accurate Diagnosis Within 60 Seconds, At Low Cost

When anemia comes on slowly, the symptoms are often vague and may include feeling tired, weakness, shortness of breath or a poor ability to exercise. Anemia that comes on quickly often has greater symptoms, which may include confusion, feeling like one is going to pass out, loss of consciousness, or increased thirst. Anemia must be significant before a person becomes noticeably pale. Additional symptoms may occur depending on the underlying cause.

At-Home Anemia Test Produces Accurate Diagnosis Within 60 Seconds, At Low Cost.

A device that uses a single drop of blood can quickly diagnose anemia and allow inexpensive at-home monitoring.

“Our goal is to get this device into patients’ hands so they can diagnose and monitor anemia themselves,” said Dr. Wilbur Lam, a physician and professor in the department of pediatrics at Emory University School of Medicine, in a statement.

The basic test produces results in about 60 seconds and requires no electrical power. Because of its simplicity and ability to deliver results without electricity, the device could also be used in resource-poor nations. A companion smartphone application can automatically correlate the visual results to specific blood hemoglobin levels.

The disposable self-testing device uses a chemical reagent that produces visible color changes corresponding to different levels of anemia.

As for the new diagnostic device, researchers concede they still need to earn FDA approval before the product can reach consumers. Lam and several of his colleagues have teamed up to launch a startup, called Sanguina, to commercialize the test under the brand name AnemoCheck. They anticipate the product reaching shelves by 2016.

Source: Tyburski E, Gillespie S, Stoy W, et al. Disposable platform provides visual and color-based point-of-care anemia self-testing. The Journal of Clinical Investigation. 2014.

Turmeric: a Natural Antidepressant more effective than Prozac

According to a recent clinical study published in the journal “Phytotherapy Research”, it has been proven that this spice offers incredible health benefits. We already knew that turmeric had anti-inflammatory and anti-carcinogenic properties, but we had not yet been able to demonstrate its effects on the mind and behavior.

This research proved that this root is much more effective in treating depression than the drug “Prozac”. Turmeric is a Natural antidepressant.

Apparently, the main compound of turmeric, curcumin, would be as effective as Prozac and with no side effects. In comparison, if you are taking Prozac, here are some of the side effects you may have: anxiety, decreased sexual drive, stomach upset, diarrhea, dizziness, weakness, tiredness, headaches, reduced appetite , Drowsiness, increased sweating, etc.


Curcumin chemical structure
Curcumin chemical structure

The main active ingredient in this root is curcumin, which is a powerful antioxidant, giving it its medicinal preventive properties of cancer and its important anti-inflammatory effects. It is transformed into a spice rich in starch (45 to 55%) and also contains curcuminoids, which are very powerful natural dyes; Here is why this spice tends to very easily try the clothes. Finally, turmeric contains essential oils (2 to 4%). Curcumin remains the main component of the plant (50-60%).

Health benefits of Turmeric

Today, many studies point to the anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory benefits of this spice on the body. Note also that in countries where they consume daily, there are far fewer cancers in Western countries (especially colon cancer in India). therefore studying increasingly turmeric for its anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory. On the other hand, it is excellent to protect the digestive organs, the liver but also to effectively purify the blood, which can eliminate many skin problems and effectively reduce cholesterol levels. Finally, the Turmeric is traditionally used to treat inflammation of the intestine, treat ulcers, and all inflammatory diseases, such as Crohn’s disease.

Fear of Poison

Fear of Poison or Toxicophobia may be defined as an overwhelming and debilitating fear (phobia) of being poisoned by contact or ingestion of ‘imaginary’ poisons or toxic products, in food for example (Garnier-Del. 1972). <fn>The genetic basis of panic and phobic anxiety disorders.Smoller JW1, Gardner-Schuster E, Covino J. Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet. 2008 May 15;148C(2):118-26. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.c.30174.</fn>


The origin of this specific phobia is not known, but like other types of phobia, a combination of environmental factors (trauma related to the object of the phobia) and hereditary factors should explain the occurrence of the phenomenon. Genetic epidemiologic studies have documented that these disorders are familial and moderately heritable<fn></fn>. Many specific phobias are primarily initiated by a stressful triggering event, such as a traumatic event in childhood, or the association of a personal tragedy with the object of the phobia.

fear of poison

Symptoms of Toxicophobia

The symptoms of toxicophobia are similar to the symptoms generally present for any phobia:

  • Anxiety, even anguish at the sight of the phobic object
  • Tachycardia caused by panic and fear
  • Rapid heartbeat
  • Shortness of breath
  • Trembling
  • A strong desire to get away <fn></fn>

The specificity of this disorder is that it often concerns food, which is a daily need. Some foods or types of food are avoided (hence the possibility of some deficiencies, to be monitored), excessive cleanliness of the environment is often necessary for the patient (but not systematic), resulting in movements strongly influenced by phobia.

Toxophobia is similar to other phobias related to dirt, dust, diseases… except that the majority of cases the fear is about a deliberate poisoning. Patients following drug treatments, interacting with medical staff, objects such as syringes, etc., which can make it difficult to manage any associated depression and the main disorder with drug treatment.


The treatment of poison phobias is increasingly being addressed by cognitive-behavioral therapies. The efficacy of exposure therapy, in combination with other Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT) components, in the treatment of specific phobia gave good results <fn></fn>, other therapeutic trends based on a similar model (neuro-linguistic programming, virtual exposure) have also shown significant improvement.

Dried plant material used as home fragrance

Create your own natural and safe (non-toxic) home fragrance

To make your own home fragrance, you don’t need to be an apothecary or chemist. All you have to do is find the right products and choose the smell you prefer. Here are 3 recipes of dried plants that are 100% natural and safe for your health.

The best way to do this is to get away from the commercial home fragrances and use a homemade essential oil diffuser.

1. Alcohol + Essential oil + Water

Alcohol evaporates faster than water, making it a good choice for diffusing the aroma in large spaces. Combustion will not produce a slightly greasy smoke, unlike methods that use vegetable oil (as below).

  • Put 60 milliliters of hot water into a jar or vial.
  • Add 60 milliliters of alcohol.
  • Add 25 drops of the essential oil of your choice.

2. Vegetable oil + essential oil

The proportion to be respected is 30% essential oil and 70% vegetable oil. You can try almond oil or safflower oil which have a very discreet scent. Add the essential oil of your choice and mix up.

Avoid mineral oils because they are made with petroleum.

3. Vegetable oil + essential oil + alcohol

In this case, use 60 milliliters of vegetable oil (almond or safflower) with 2 or 3 teaspoons of alcohol and a generous shave of essential oil, again respecting the 30/70% proportion.

Whatever mixture you choose, put your perfume into a pretty glass or ceramic recipient. Add diffusers or another dry vegetable tip that will help to raise the liquid upwards. Soak the tip for two or three hours and then turn it over. Every few days, you can add more essential oil to compensate after evaporation.

Which essential oil to choose?

Here are some suggestions:

  • Lemon, lemongrass, thyme (cleansing action).
  • Lavender, mint, cedar, jasmine, orange to give a positive atmosphere, and fight depression.
  • Eucalyptus and lavender to lower blood pressure.

Probiotics May Cause Detox Symptoms

Probiotics are living bacteria and yeasts. The health advantages of probiotic supplements and foods have been well documented, for instance, they help losing weight, maintaining good heart health, improving digestion, enhancing immune function and more. Overall probiotics are a beneficial addition to most people’s diet.

However, probiotics may cause symptoms similar to those experienced in a Detox diet.<fn></fn>

Gas and Bloating

The human gastrointestinal tract is colonized by complex bacterial strains. While most people do not experience side effects, the most frequently reported response to bacteria-based probiotic supplements is a temporary increase in gas and bloating.

The initial feelings were bloating, gas, slight constipation, and mild indigestion. This probably can occur when you take an onset of a large dosage of probiotics. During the first few days, your gut is transitioning by ridding your colon of all the bad bacteria and slowly replacing with new good bacteria. Needless to say, your gut may not be used to it.
Lactose intolerant individuals may develop diarrhea, abdominal discomfort and flatulence after consumption of probiotics. If the gas bloating or any other side effects continue for more than a few weeks stop taking the probiotic and consult your doctor or diet professional.


In few and far between cases, probiotics may cause skin rashes or itchiness.


The immunomodulatory effect of immunological bacteria which includes probiotic bacteria is based on 3 supposedly contradictory phenomena:

  • induction and maintenance of the state of immunological tolerance to environmental antigens
  • nutritional and inhalatory induction and control of immunological reactions against pathogens of bacterial and viral origin
  • inhibition of auto-aggressive and allergic reactions


While there are numerous health advantages linked to taking probiotics there can also be some adverse effects especially in people with serious diseases or compromised immune systems who may experience severe complications such as chronic and recurrent infections and inflammations of the intestine.

It is estimated that only about 1/1000000 people who take probiotics containing Lactobacilli bacteria will develop an infection.

Small intestine bacterial overgrowth (SIBO)

Considering the fact that a probiotic is essentially active in the small and large intestine, the effect of a prebiotic is observed mainly in the large intestine, however, it is not digested or only partially digested, not absorbed in the small intestine poorly fermented by bacteria in the oral cavity, well fermented by apparently beneficial intestinal bacteria, poorly fermented by potential pathogens.

SIBO (Small intestine bacterial overgrowth) occurs when bacteria from the large intestine start growing in the small intestine, causing similar symptoms to those caused by IBS, including gas, bloating, and diarrhea. SIBO may also be responsible for brain fogginess and short-term retention problems.

Antibiotic resistance

Probiotic bacteria scarcely ever could contain antibiotic-resistant genes. They can transfer these genes to other strains of bacteria, including the harmful strains that cause infections.


Kudzu – a Plant for alcohol and tobacco detox

Kudzu is a plant originating from the semi-tropical regions of Asia (China, Japan, Korea, Taiwan, the Philippines, Viet Nam, Malaysia, Indonesia, and New Caledonia), it can reach several tens of meters long, it is characterized by petiolated leaves, dark green, 3- or 5-lobed, Yellowish beige cylindrical, fibrous roots.

The fruit is a pod containing black seeds the size of a bean. Its discharges ensure the stabilization of deforested soils.


The plant is used for food purposes, fresh tubers or leaves, in the form of porridges, cakes, tofus, etc., it is used in many culinary preparations.

Present in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia since 200 years BC, its Latin name Pueraria lobata means “always in a state of youth” (stink = child). Indian kudzu Pueraria tuberosa (Willd.) DC. is used in Ayurvedic medicine, it has androgenic and aphrodisiac effects, anti-inflammatory, it may become hepatotoxic when taken in high doses.

Parts used

Root and leaves


  • Flavonoids: isoflavones: puerarin, daïdzein (or daidzein), daïdzin (or daidzin), genistein, formononetin
  • Coumarins
  • Beta-sitosterol
  • Triterpenic saponosides (soyasaponin and kudzusaponin)
  • Proteins, sugars, minerals, fibers
  • Arylbenzofuran: puerariafuran


  • Hepatoprotective action
  • Anti-oxidant action
  • Acts on alcohol metabolism and in alcoholic addictions by inhibition of ALDH2 (mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase) Antabuse effect, kudzu extract does not appear to increase the effects of alcohol
  • Pueraria root is effective on alcoholism by daidzin, which inhibits mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 necessary for the elimination of alcohol (disulfiram-like action) and by puerarin (isoflavones), daidzin inhibits the activity of the enzyme aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH-2), selectively and reversibly.
  • One study showed that intraperitoneal injection of Pueraria lobata root extracts (1.5 g/kg/day i.p.) resulted in a decrease in alcohol intake of at least 50% in golden hamsters, an effect attributed to daidzin and daidzein
  • Estrogenic-mimetic effects
  • Prevents the occurrence of myocardial infarction by allowing an inflow of blood to coronary (puerarin), cardioprotective against ischemia-reperfusion processes
    Reduces peripheral, hypotensive resistance
  • Promotes memory and learning, increases brain glutamate concentration in the hippocampus
  • The active components of Astragalus membranaceus, such as those of Epimedium and Radix Puerariae, reduce cognitive deficits in Alzheimer’s disease, have a neuroprotective effect by reducing iron overload in the brain, inhibit the accumulation of β-amyloids and can provide a new approach for the development of drugs for Alzheimer’s disease.
  • Antimutagen effect

Kudzu Cleansing and ‘detox’ action

Some plants could naturally help you stop smoking, alcohol or other so-called “soft” drugs. they have already proven their effectiveness, such as Avena sativa, more commonly known as oats, St. John’s wort or Griffonia simplicifolia rich in 5-HTP, which increases serotonin levels in the body and therefore considerably improves mood. If you have already tried these plants without success, Kudzu (Pueraria lobata) is a highly recommended plant (pronounced “cudzoo”. Native to Southeast Asia). Kudzu was originally found in China, Japan, Korea, Taiwan, the Philippines, Viet Nam, Malaysia, Indonesia, and New Caledonia. It has been used in Chinese medicine for decades to cure allergies, migraines, and diarrhea. It is only in recent years that our Western pharmacopeia has been interested in this root to help alcohol and tobacco withdrawal.

Action against alcohol dependency

In Chinese, kudzu means “drunkenness dissipator”. Dr. David Lee had already observed that the northern Chinese drank kudzu tea to sober up and heal the hangover.

In 1991, Dr. David Lee conducted a study in China at Shin-Yanget University. He tested the effects of kudzu tea on laboratory rats that had been exposed to alcohol. The rats’ motor coordination was improved. They seemed less intoxicated.

The following year, Dr. David Lee suggested to researchers at the Bowles Center for Alcohol Studies in North Carolina, an additional study: to see if kudzu helps wean rats that have a genetic tendency to like alcohol. The researchers found that administering kudzu to “alcoholic” rats calmed their drinking tendency.

In 2011, following these encouraging results, Harvard University researchers tested the efficacy of kudzu against placebo in a group of men and women who regularly drank 3 or 4 pints of beer per day. They discovered two interesting phenomena:

  • Members who had taken kudzu had significantly less desire for alcohol than those on placebo;
  • Members cared for in kudzu felt the effects of alcohol more quickly. As a result, they needed to drink less to achieve an equivalent level of happiness.

This plant not only limits the impulses but also reduces the damage that these toxic substances have caused to the body over time. By stimulating the activity of certain enzymes, Kudzu root helps to fight oxidative stress produced by the consumption of cigarettes and alcohol and thus limits their harmful effects. In China, the herbal tea of this plant is also used to limit the harmful effects of alcohol. Thus, taking kudzu could reduce the famous “hangover” of the next morning.

Active substances in Kudzu

recent studies have revealed that the roots of kudzu are rich in isoflavones of the flavonoid family: daidzein, known as an anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial agent. The daidzein that acts against cancer. Genistein, which is an anti-leukemic agent. But above all, kudzu is the only source of puerarine.

All these isoflavones are antioxidants and reduce alcohol-related damage.

Studies have shown that these isoflavones stimulate the brain’s natural “opioids”. They act on neurotransmitters such as serotonin, GABA and glutamate.

The common factors of addiction (alcohol, tobacco, drugs, sugar…) bring you peace and well-being. This involves increasing the production of dopamine in your brain.

Action on addiction

Kudzu isoflavones help to relieve addiction. They are involved in the reward system. They stimulate the production of dopamine instead of your favorite “drug”. You are then more relaxed, and your attention turns away from the object of your addiction. You no longer feel the need to have another drink, another cigarette or yet another square of chocolate.

Kudzu compensates for the pleasure you get from your usual “drug” and helps to relieve your addiction. The most important thing is that kudzu itself is not addictive. In fact, several clinical trials have confirmed its safety. However, isoflavones are not recommended for breast cancer.

Thanks to kudzu, you can gradually replace your “drug” and slowly accustom your brain to receiving less strong dopamine impulses.

Kudzu also contains saponosides that prevent cell damage and protect your liver.

Beyond the kudzu in cures against addictions, kudzu is reputed to be effective against stress in general. It soothes, which makes it easier to sleep.

A calming and soothing action

Kudzu root contains highly active substances such as daidzin, daidzein, and puerarin, which are grouped under the term isoflavones. These substances, also present in soya, have a calming and soothing action by acting on the central nervous system and thus make it possible to feel less the desires and impulses towards these toxic substances. The studies, which have been carried out so far in animals, should soon be confirmed in humans. However, the experiments already carried out on average smokers have given very good results in just a few days. Even the patches bought “as a backup” at the pharmacy were not used! No feeling of lack, no irritability, everything goes smoothly and without side effects.

How much and when?

Orally. Up to 500 mg of standardized kuzu extract in tablets containing at least 8% isoflavones, three times a day. 60 drops of fluid extract in a glass of water, 3 to 6 times a day. 3 g kuzu root in a glass of water

Gargle. Make gargle with 100 ml of warm water containing 10 to 15 g of dried flowers, i.e. 1 ml of fluid extract (1/100 dilution).

Inhalation. Inhale boiling water vapours in which 3-10 g of flowers have been infused for several minutes.

For heavy smokers or heavy drinkers, double the doses and distribute them throughout the day.


The program should be continued for at least one month, in synergy with B-group vitamins. Usually, the effects are quickly felt.

Formal contraindication

women who are pregnant or who wish to become pregnant. Never consume any plants in this case without the advice of a physician.

A beneficial action against cardiovascular diseases

Its use has also been shown to be effective in lowering blood pressure, improving blood circulation and reducing inflammation, making it a supplement of choice for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases (angina pectoris, myocardial infarction, and high blood pressure).

Possible positive effects for diabetics

Action on the pancreatic metabolism and the oxidative stress: In rats, experiments have shown the protective effect of puerarin on certain cells of the pancreas responsible for insulin secretion. It inhibits the programmed death of these cells, stimulates insulin secretion and finally, inhibits the production of free radicals by increasing the activity of catalases and superoxide-dismutases (SOD).

Improvement of glucose tolerance:

Puerarin, which is rapidly absorbed by the intestine, increases glucose tolerance in people with type II diabetes by lowering blood glucose levels and increasing the storage of glucose as glycogen in the liver and heart.

How L-Tryptophan helps you sleep better

Natural L-tryptophan is an amino acid that promotes sleep and reduces stress. It is used by our body to manufacture serotonin, which promotes deep sleep. Serotonin also helps to manage stress and reduce mood disorders. Then melatonin, the sleep hormone, essential for the proper functioning of the internal biological clock.

L-Tryptophan Structure
L-Tryptophan Structure

L-tryptophan is one of the eight essential amino acids our body needs. L-tryptophan is therefore not manufactured by our body and must be provided by our diet. Natural L-tryptophan allows better assimilation by the body. It requires essentially the presence of vitamins B3 and B6 and carbohydrates for its transformation.

Metabolism to Melatonin, the Sleep Hormone

Metabolism of natural L-tryptophan leads to the production of endogenous serotonin and melatonin. The presence of carbohydrates, such as oats, in the presence of L-tryptophan results in a high concentration of L-tryptophan and its passage through the blood-brain barrier of the brain. This is where L-tryptophan is transformed into serotonin, then into melatonin, the mediators of sleep. This transformation requires the mandatory presence of vitamin B6 in sufficient quantity.

In the human body, according to its traditional metabolism, natural L-tryptophan is also used, and at 95%, for the synthesis of vitamin B3. This is why a nutritional intake of vitamin B3 is essential to occasionally reverse this ratio to allow the development of the Serotonin – Melatonin synthesis pathway.

Serotonin organises the structure of our sleep and its continuity. It induces sleep and entry into the phases of deep sleep and REM sleep essential for proper physical and nervous recovery. Serotonin is then transformed into melatonin, the sleep hormone, which ensures the proper functioning of the circadian rhythm or biological rhythm.

Recommended daily intake

According to the U.S. Institute of Medicine, the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) of 5 mg/kg body weight/day of L-Tryptophan for adults 19 years and over.

Top Foods high in Tryptophan (Trp)

The table below shows the content in g of Tryptophan/100 g of food.

Tryptophan (Trp) content of various foods
Food Tryptophan
[g/100 g of food]
[g/100 g of food]
Tryptophan/protein [%]
Egg white, dried
Spirulina, dried
Cod, Atlantic, dried
Soybeans, raw
Cheese, Parmesan
Sesame seed
Cheese, Cheddar
Sunflower seed
Pork, chop
Lamb, chop
Perch, Atlantic
Chickpeas, raw
Quinoa, uncooked
Wheat flour, white
Baking chocolate, unsweetened
Quinoa, cooked
Rice, white, medium-grain, cooked
Potatoes, russet

Sleep efficiency of the combination of natural L-tryptophan – vitamin B6 – vitamin B3

The “L-tryptophane-vitamin B6-vitamin B3” complex taken in addition to a high carbohydrate intake has shown a significant 39% increase in deep sleep time in people with difficulty of sleeping, however, these results were not found with synthetic L-Tryptophan.


A second study showed that taking milk proteins rich in natural L-tryptophan not only improves the quality of sleep but also improves the attention and intellectual performance of the next day.

L-Tryptophan also fights stress, overwork and mood swings

A lot of research provides evidence linking serotonin to stress and depression. This is particularly observed during dietary deficiencies in natural L-tryptophan, the precursor of serotonin synthesis.

Firk, in his double blind versus placebo clinical study, demonstrated that stress can induce a depressive episode, both in people with and without a family history of depression, and that this episode is exacerbated if there is food deprivation with L-tryptophan. This suggests the mediation of serotonin in stressful situations and particularly in people with a family history of depression.

Also, a dietary deficiency of L-tryptophan seems to provide less resistance to uncontrollable stress caused by noise in healthy volunteers than in the placebo.

Conversely, the intake of L-tryptophan would provide better resistance to stress. It is known that cognitive performance often decreases under chronic stress exposure. A clinical study, carried out in double blind versus placebo, shows that a diet rich in L-tryptophan significantly increases cognitive performance (better reaction time) in people sensitive to stress.

This study was confirmed by a second crossover clinical study, double-blind, versus placebo, which observed that a diet rich in L-tryptophan was beneficial in combating mood and stress disorders.

Natural L-Tryptophan VS Synthetic L-Tryptophan

Studies have shown a very good bioavailability of 100% natural L-tryptophan provided from milk proteins. Many foods are excellent sources of L-tryptophan, such as meat, poultry, and fish. But they also contain many other amino acids that compete with L-tryptophan and, therefore, limit its passage through the brain.

On the other hand, synthetic L-tryptophan has very poor bioavailability, making it ineffective and sometimes unsafe.

Milk proteins contain a high concentration of L-tryptophan compared to other amino acids, which allows a better blood concentration of L-tryptophan.

L-tryptophan, a very fragile essential amino acid

It is the least abundant amino acid in food and is very fragile. In particular, it is easily destroyed by cooking that is too long or too hot.

It undergoes a strong competition sometimes causing a lack for our body. Indeed, protein nutritional intakes also contain many other amino acids that compete with L-tryptophan and, therefore, limit its passage through the brain: a meal that is too rich in protein harms sleep because it can cause a higher blood concentration of tyrosine, an amino acid used to produce dopamine, a neurotransmitter associated with motor activity and aggression.

Finally, as we have seen previously, L-tryptophan is used primarily by our body to preferentially produce vitamin B3 to serotonin and melatonin. It is therefore essential to reverse this ratio to optimise the serotonin – melatonin synthesis pathway.

Foods Rich in L-Tryptophan

The nutritional composition table of food doesn’t detail the precise tryptophan levels. However, the following foods are the richest in tryptophan.

  • Whole grain rice
  • Meat and poultry
  • Dairy products
  • Eggs
  • Soya protein
  • Peanuts
  • Fish
  • Pulses
  • Chocolate
  • Banana
  • Almonds
  • Cashew nuts
  • Brewer’s yeast

Use of tryptophan

The nutritional recommendations are to consume 500 to 2000 mg of tryptophan per day for a healthy adult.

Probiotics for Chronic Constipation

There are approximately 3.8·1013 single-celled microorganisms for every single “reference man”  weighing 140 pounds, and their total mass is about 200 grams (

Intestinal microbiota aids in the breakdown of food products into absorbable nutrients, stimulates the host immune system, suppress inflammation [source], prevents the expansion of pathogenic bacteria and produces a substantial variety of biologically major compounds such as short-chain fatty acids that nourish the gut.

Gut Bacteria
Gut Bacteria

The concept behind probiotics was introduced in the early 19th century when Nobel laureate Elie Metchnikoff (1845–1916), known as the father of probiotics <fn>Front Public Health. 2013; 1: 52. Published online 2013 Nov 13. Prepublished online 2013 May 30. doi: 10.3389/fpubh.2013.00052 </fn>.

Elie Metchnikoff (1845–1916)
Elie Metchnikoff (1845–1916)

Probiotics are given or attenuated microorganisms defined as, when administered in adequate amounts, being able to confer health benefits on their host when they are given in.

Lactobacillus acidophilus, for example, lives in our digestive, urinary and genital systems and can be found in some fermented foods like yogurt. It may help reduce cholesterol, prevent Diarrhea, prevent Vaginal Infections, promote Weight Loss and improve symptoms of irritable bowel.

Lactobacillus acidophilus
Lactobacillus acidophilus

Studies suggest that taking probiotic supplements may shift the balance of gut bacteria in a way that increases your body’s defenses against allergies, infections, and cancer.

Probiotics and constipation

Chronic constipation is a symptom-based gastrointestinal disorder most common among the elderly, it is characterized by bowel movements that occur more frequently than normal. Constipation is most likely multifactorial. According to Harvard Medical School, it is more frequent than diarrhea and affects approximatively 14% of adults each year.

Researchers have shown an increased interest in the potential therapeutic applications of Probiotics to prevent or treat a variety of health problems including constipation and diarrhea. They also found a favorable effect in stool consistency and relief in abdominal discomfort making them increasingly used as alternative treatment options.

Although Probiotics have still been widely used nowadays for the treatment of constipation, the industry still has serious concerns about the long-term safety of probiotics which remain still partly unclear.

Mechanism of action

Several mechanisms have been proposed by which probiotics may benefit chronic constipation. Probiotics may modify the altered intestinal microbiota, and may eventually influence gut sensory-motor functions (Kawabata et al.). A healthy gut can benefit the regularity of your digestion as well as cognitive function like mood. One in vitro study (Bar et al.) suggested that Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 Supernatants (clear liquid overlying material deposited by settling, precipitation, or centrifugation) (Mutaflor®) could effectively enhance colonic contractility by direct stimulation of smooth muscle cells.

A recent study reported that methane and carbon dioxide, which are principal end products of bacterial fermentation could increase stool bulk and promote colonic transit (Lopez).

Which probiotic strains are best for constipation?

Proven probiotics available for constipation and bloating in adults are:

  • Lactobacillus casei Shirota (or L. Casei), which has effects on constipation and stool hardness, but not necessarily on flatulence and bloating
  • Lactobacillus plantarum LP01 (or L. Plantarum), which would facilitate stool evacuation
  • Bifidobacterium breve BR03 (or B. Patent), which would also improve the consistency of stool, helping to expel it
  • Bifidobacterium lactis DN-173 010 (or B. Lactis)
  • Bifidobacterium lactis B94 
  • Bifidobacterium lactis HN019
  • Bifidobacterium longum W11 (or B. Longum) 
  • Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 (or E. Coli), which allowed treated patients to go from 2 to 6 trips to the toilet per week

Proven probiotics available for constipation and bloating in children are:

  • Lactobacillus reuteri (or L. Reuteri), which has been shown to have an effect on chronic constipation in infants
  • Lactobacillus Casei rhamnosus Lcr35 or L, Casei), which relieves constipation while reducing abdominal pain